Primary and Secondary Evidence in Forensic Document Verification

Document Analysis Kanchan Dogra todayApril 20, 2024 1

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Forensic document examination is a crucial aspect of forensic science, playing a vital role in legal investigations, fraud detection, and document authenticity verification. Forensic document examiners utilize various techniques and methodologies to scrutinize handwriting, signatures, printed text, alteration, and erasure within documents, typewritten documents, and other features to determine the genuineness of documents. One fundamental distinction within this field is the differentiation between primary and secondary evidence.

In this blog, we will explore why understanding the difference between primary and secondary evidence matters in forensic document examination. Distinguishing between them is crucial for accurately assessing document authenticity and credibility, especially in legal proceedings. We’ll examine their characteristics, examples, and significance, along with real-life case studies, to highlight the importance of primary evidence in establishing document authenticity.

Forensic documents can be classified into two types:

  • Questioned Documents: Documents whose authenticity, origin, or content is disputed or under investigation. Examples include forged signatures, altered documents, ransom notes, and counterfeit currency. Forensic experts analyze various aspects such as handwriting, ink, paper, and printing methods to determine the legitimacy of questioned documents.
  • Known Documents: Known documents serve as reference materials or standards for comparison in forensic document analysis. These documents are typically authenticated and recognized as genuine, providing a basis for comparison with questioned documents. Known documents may include handwriting samples, legal documents, official records, or other documents with established authenticity. Comparing known documents with questioned documents helps forensic experts identify inconsistencies or similarities, aiding in the determination of authenticity and validity.

Techniques Used in Forensic Document Examination

  • Handwriting Analysis: Comparing handwriting characteristics to determine authorship or authenticity.
  • Signature Analysis: Evaluating signatures to identify forgeries or confirm authenticity.
  • Ink Analysis: Analyzing ink composition for dating or differentiation.
  • Paper Analysis: Examining paper characteristics for origin or authenticity.
  • Printing and Typewriting Analysis: Identifying machine type and detecting anomalies.
  • Indentation Analysis: Revealing impressions from writing or printing on other sheets.
  • Examination of Alterations: Detecting changes using various methods such as photography or chemical reagents.
  • Document Imaging and Enhancement: Enhancing document details through advanced imaging techniques.

Role of Forensic Document Examiner

  • Analyze and examine questioned documents to determine authenticity and authorship.
  • Collect and preserve evidence related to documents, ensuring the integrity for legal proceedings.
  • Provide expert testimony in court to assist judges and juries.
  • Collaborate with investigators, attorneys, and other forensic experts.
  • Engage in research to improve examination techniques.
  • Prepare detailed reports for legal proceedings.
  • Offer education and training in document examination and forensic science.

Primary Evidence in Forensic Document Examination

Primary evidence refers to original, direct, and firsthand evidence that is obtained directly from the source or is the best evidence available to establish a fact or support a claim (as per Section 62 of IEA, 1872). In the context of forensic document examination, primary evidence typically consists of the original questioned documents and any associated materials directly related to them.

Characteristics of Primary Evidence

Primary evidence, which is unaltered and originates directly from the source, is highly reliable, authentic, and crucial for establishing facts. Its direct relevance and reliability make it admissible in legal proceedings.

Examples of Primary Evidence in Document Examination

  • Original questioned documents: Handwritten letters, contracts, signatures.
  • Original copies of printed documents or forms.
  • Original receipts, checks, and financial records.
  • Original photographs, drawings, and sketches linked to the document.
  • Original packaging or envelopes associated with the documents.

Importance of Primary Evidence in Establishing Authenticity

  • Authenticity Verification: Primary evidence provides direct evidence of origin and integrity for verifying document authenticity.
  • Authorship Determination: Helps examiners compare handwriting, signatures, or printing characteristics to determine authorship.
  • Detection of Alterations: Enables accurate identification of alterations, additions, or erasures in documents.
  • Legal Admissibility: Crucial for presenting a strong case in legal proceedings due to its greater credibility.
  • Ensuring Fairness: Upholds principles of justice and integrity by ensuring accuracy in investigations and legal proceedings.

Secondary Evidence in Forensic Document Examination

Secondary evidence refers to indirect or derivative evidence that is not the original or firsthand source of information but is instead derived from or based on primary evidence (as per Section 63 IEA, 1872). In forensic document examination, secondary evidence may include copies, photographs, or reconstructions of original documents or related materials.

Characteristics of Secondary Evidence

Secondary evidence, is derived from primary sources, not the original source of information, and may vary in reliability depending on factors such as the accuracy of reproduction and the fidelity of the copy. While it provides insights into the original document, its authenticity may be lower compared to primary evidence and may face potential challenges regarding admissibility in legal proceedings

Examples of Secondary Evidence in Document Examination

  • Photocopies or digital scans of original documents.
  • Photographs of original documents or related materials.
  • Transcriptions or summaries of original documents.
  • Copies or reproductions made through scanning or imaging techniques.
  • Reconstructions of damaged or partially destroyed documents based on available evidence.

Limitations and Challenges Associated with Secondary Evidence

  • Loss of Detail: Secondary evidence may lack crucial details that are present in originals, potentially leading to information loss.
  • Potential for Alterations: Copies or reproductions may be vulnerable to alterations, casting doubt on their accuracy and authenticity.
  • Authentication Issues: Establishing the authenticity of secondary evidence can be challenging, often requiring additional verification.
  • Admissibility Concerns: Courts may scrutinize the admissibility of secondary evidence, especially regarding accuracy, authenticity, or relevance.
  • Interpretation Challenges: Analyzing secondary evidence may require careful interpretation due to potential discrepancies compared to originals.
  • Limited Court Value: Secondary evidence often serves as supporting rather than primary evidence, with limited substantive value in court proceedings.

Provisions in the Indian Evidence Act

Circumstances where Secondary Evidence relating to documents, is admissible

Section 65 of the Indian Evidence Act outlines situations/circumstances allowing secondary evidence instead of primary evidence. These are as follows:

  1. In case where the original documents are held by: the party against whom the document is being used as evidence, or someone who cannot be contacted, or someone legally required to produce the document but fails to do so despite notice under Section 66 of the Evidence Act.
  2. In case where the individual to whom the document is to be proved admits in writing to the existence, condition, or contents of the original.
  3. In the case, where the original document is lost or destroyed, or if the party intending to present evidence fails to do so within a reasonable timeframe for reasons beyond their control and not due to neglect or default.
  4. In cases where the primary evidence is immovable, such as a caricature or inscription (as defined by Section 3 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872), secondary evidence can be accepted.
  5. In cases where the original document qualifies as a public document under Section 74, then a certified copy of that document can be submitted.
  6. In cases where the original document is of a nature that the Evidence Act allows for a certified copy, then such a certified copy can be presented.
  7. In cases where multiple documents need to be presented, which are impractical for the court to examine individually, or when the fact to be proven is the overall result of the entire set of documents.

In situations (A), (C), and (D), any secondary evidence demonstrating the document’s contents is admissible. Moreover, for case (B), only written admission is acceptable. Cases (E) and (F) mandate only certified copies of the original document as admissible secondary evidence. Finally, for case (G), evidence can be provided by an expert who has examined all relevant documents.

Conditions under which secondary evidence can be presented without the requirement of serving a notice for its production

Section 66 of IEA, 1872 delineates situations wherein secondary evidence can be introduced in court without the necessity of issuing a notice

  • When the document itself serves as a notice.
  • When it’s evident from the case’s subject matter that the opposing party should produce it.
  • When it’s proven or apparent that the opposing party obtained the original document through fraud or force.
  • When the opposing party or their representative has the original document in court.
  • When the opposing party or their representative admits to the document’s loss.
  • When the person possessing the document is unreachable or beyond the court’s jurisdiction.

Key Differences Between Primary and Secondary Evidence

FactorsPrimary EvidenceSecondary Evidence
SourceOriginal, firsthand sourceDerivative, reproduced from primary evidence or other sources
AuthenticityInherently authenticMay have reduced authenticity compared to primary evidence
ReliabilityHigh reliabilityReliability may vary depending on the fidelity of reproduction
DirectnessDirectly obtained from the sourceIndirect, not directly from the source
AdmissibilityGenerally admissible in legal proceedingsMay face challenges regarding admissibility
DetailTypically contains detailed informationMay lack detail compared to primary evidence
Alteration SusceptibilityLess susceptible to alterations or modificationsMore susceptible to alterations or modifications
Importance in CourtHolds greater weight and credibilityOften serves as supporting or corroborating material
ExamplesOriginal documents, photographs, physical objectsPhotocopies, digital scans, reconstructions, summaries
Table 1: Differences Between Primary and Secondary Evidence

Case Studies: Primary and Secondary Evidence in Practice

Over the years, judicial decisions have clarified the significance of primary evidence and the admissibility of secondary evidence when primary evidence is unavailable.

  • In the case of J. Yashoda v. Smt. K. Shobha Rani, 2007(2) R.C.R.(Civil) 840 : 2007(1) R.C.R.(Rent) 466 : 2007(2), the Hon’ble Supreme Court ruled that the admission of secondary evidence is typically allowed only when primary evidence is unavailable. If the original evidence is deemed inadmissible because the party presenting it fails to establish its validity, then that party cannot introduce any secondary evidence of its contents.
  • In the case of H. Siddiqui (dead) by LRs Vs. A. Ramalingam 2011 (4) SCC 240, the Supreme Court reiterated that if the original documents are not produced, and there is no rational reason or factual basis for presenting secondary evidence, the court cannot allow the party to introduce such secondary evidence.
  • In Rakesh Mohindra v. Anita Beri and Ors. (2016) 16 SCC 483, the Supreme Court emphasized that before presenting secondary evidence in court, the party relying on the original documents must demonstrate that despite their best efforts, they were unable to produce them due to circumstances beyond their control. Additionally, the party must establish a plausible reason for the non-production of primary evidence. Secondary evidence cannot be admitted until it is proven that the original documents are lost, destroyed, or intentionally withheld by the opposing party.
  • In Chandra v. M. Thangamuthu (2010) 9 SCC 712, the Supreme Court emphasized that secondary evidence must be supported by foundational evidence, proving that the alleged copy is indeed an authentic replica of the original. It is crucial to note that exceptions to the rule demanding primary evidence aim to offer relief in cases where a party genuinely cannot produce the original without fault.


In summary, distinguishing between primary and secondary evidence is crucial in forensic document examination. Primary evidence, the original document, is paramount for assessing authenticity. It forms the basis for thorough analysis, ensuring accuracy and integrity in legal proceedings and investigations. Prioritizing primary evidence upholds examination integrity and contributes to fair case resolutions.


Written by: Kanchan Dogra

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