Which File System is Best for Mac Forensic Imaging?

Computer Forensics Anjali Singhal todayJanuary 12, 2024

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HFS+ and APFS vs exFAT and NTFS: Which File System is Best for Mac Forensic Imaging?

When it comes to selecting the destination drive format for Mac forensic imaging, there are numerous alternatives. However, not all file systems operate or behave in the same manner. In this blog, we’ll compare and contrast exFAT, NTFS, HFS+, and APFS to determine which is best for Mac forensic imaging.


The native file systems of macOS, HFS+ and APFS, are the most often utilized file systems for Mac forensic imaging. MacOS has been using HFS+ since 1998, and macOS High Sierra introduced APFS in 2017.

Used extensively on macOS for more than 20 years, HFS+ is a reliable and established file system. It is renowned for being strong and dependable, which makes it the perfect option for forensic imaging. Journaling is one of the functions that HFS+ offers, helping to guard against data corruption and loss in the case of a power outage or system crash. Because of its simplicity, HFS+ is also a widely utilized format—especially when contrasted to its more recent equivalent, APFS.

The latest file system created especially for macOS hardware is called APFS. It was released with the intention of enhancing macOS device dependability, security, and performance. Moreover, APFS has tools that facilitate the creation and management of forensic photos, such as cloning and imaging.

Because HFS+ and APFS are both compatible with macOS devices, significant file system metadata—specifically, the extended attribute data—are preserved. Because it enables examiners to more precisely describe how a file got onto the file system and how a user has interacted with it, this is crucial for forensic investigations.

The efficiency with which HFS+ and APFS can manage massive files and volumes is another benefit when it comes to Mac forensic imaging. Large files and volumes may be handled by HFS+ and APFS with ease, which helps to expedite the imaging process and reduce the possibility of errors.


On external devices, the file systems NTFS and ExFAT are frequently utilized. They have limitations when it comes to Mac forensic imaging, even though they might be appropriate in some other imaging applications.

As ExFAT is not a native file system for macOS, not all file system metadata and timestamps will be preserved during imaging. This can make it challenging to ascertain a user’s involvement with certain files and confirm the data integrity throughout the forensic investigation. The fact that Apple Double Files exists makes this clearly demonstrable. Since HFS+ and APFS have different methods for preserving metadata, Mac must construct an Apple Double File in order to try to maintain metadata while transferring data to non-native file systems like exFAT. The file system incompatibility can result in the loss of several significant artifacts. In addition, exFAT has been known to cause errors when imaging datasets and has been known to unmount partway through an acquisition in the past.

On the other hand, NTFS requires additional software to be writable natively on macOS. This could make imaging more difficult and raise the possibility of mistakes or corrupted data. Although using NTFS with third-party software is feasible, doing so can add more variables that could compromise the data’s integrity, and the majority of commercial forensic tools don’t load these drivers by default.

Which File System is Best for Mac Forensic Imaging?

In conclusion, based on their built-in compatibility with macOS, capacity to maintain crucial file system metadata, and dependability even under extreme stress, HFS+ and APFS are the recommended file systems for Mac forensic imaging. Due to their shortcomings, exFAT and NTFS are probably not the best destination disk formats for forensic investigations on macOS systems. Time stamps, their incapacity to store Apple Metadata correctly, and the possibility that write rights are not included by default are a few examples of this. In order to guarantee accurate and dependable results, it is crucial to take compatibility, support, and data integrity into account when choosing a file system for your Mac imaging destination disk.

Written by: Anjali Singhal

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