Handwriting And Questioned Document Examination

Questioned document examination (QDE) is a forensic science discipline pertaining to documents that are potentially disputed in a court of law. It can simply be defined as any document that may be disputed or queried, especially as to its source and/or authenticity, is a questioned document.

The examination’s primary purpose is to provide evidence about suspicious or questioned documents using a variety of scientific principles and methods. Document examination might include alterations, obliterations, paper analysis, forgery, origin, determining authenticity, or any other questions.

Handwriting examination, which is one of the most in-demand fields of QDE typically, involves the comparison of known specimens to handwriting evidence found on questioned or disputed documents. We have document examiners who can provide advice on the relevance of handwriting examination to your case and they have the expertise to assist you in your case.

The QDE services we offer are:

  1. Detection of Forgery:Generally, forgery refers to faking a signature without permission, making a false document or another object, or changing an existing document or another object without authorization. The most common form of forgery is signing someone else’s name to a check, but objects, data, and documents can also be forged. The same is true of legal contracts, historical papers, art objects, diplomas, licenses, certificates, and identification cards.​
  2. Secret Writings Examination and Detection:Secret writingis any means of written communication whereby a person conceals the actual written text, whether it is enciphered/encoded or not.Most secret writings can be revealed by the use of scientific tools and techniquesor by using various light sourceson the paper on which they are written.
  3. Ink and Paper Examination: Questioned document examiners frequently are called upon to analyze a single sheet or multiple sheets of paper upon which there are markings, handwriting, printing, and/or graphics& to identify the type of ink involved in a questioned document, but also the source of the ink. In these types of examinations questions are generally asked about the age of paper & ink or whether the two samples given for comparison are from source, etc.
  4. Detection of Altered & Obliterated Writings: Obliterationsare accidental or purposeful instances where a section of writing or printing was overwritten with a substance. Actually, an obliteration is kind of alteration.Examples of document alterations include the following: Erasures, Additional markings, Charring, Indented writing and Obliterations. Detection of these alterations is done using various physical and chemical methods.
  5. Photocopied Documents Examination: The use of photocopiers due to their speed, simplicity, accessibility and low cost has made them very convenient not only for legitimate but also for illegal purposes. The most common crimes associated with photocopied documents include fraud, terrorism, passing on secrets or confidential materials etc.

Photocopied documents are examined by comparing class characteristics followed by careful evaluation of identifying features. The classification of the photocopied document is based on physical characteristics such as paper type, toner type, toner application, and fusion methods, followed by an examination of the trash/defect marks, which develop over a period of time due to use and abuse of the copier and serve as the basis for identification.

  1. Charred Documents Examination:Charred documentcan be expected in case of accidental fire, intentional fire and arson, insurance and financial and leaking of examination papers,etc. A charred or burnt document is any document that has become darkened and brittle through exposure to fire.Burning documents to conceal a crime is fairly common; most people believe that once evidence of their crime has turned into ash, they will not be discovered. However, with special equipment, an experienced document examiner can often still read what is on a burned or charred document.
  2. Currency Notes Examinations (FICNs): The currency note examination is conducted to detect counterfeit currency by examining the pre-defined security features and standards provided by the RBI.
  3. Passport Examination:As passport forgery has increased in the last two-three decades due to various reasons which is also a threat to the internal security of our country. Fake/counterfeit passports are prepared by criminals /antisocial elements by making addition, alteration or modification in particulars on genuine passport. Different types of cases related with passport forgeries are examined depending on the nature of query asked.
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